የዐፄ ካሌብ ወይም የቅዱስ ኤልስባን* ገድል

ከፈንታሁን ጥሩነህ 

(ዋሺንግተን ዲ ሲ)

ሚያዝያ 2013

ዐፄ ኢዛና  ሃሌን ንጉሠ ነገሥት ዘኢትዮጵያ ተብሎ አሥር ዓመት ከገዛ በኋላ ከልጆቹ መሃል የአክሱም መኳንንት ካሌብን አነገሡ፤ ስመ ንግሡም ዳግማዊ ዐፄ እለ አጽብሃ ንጉሠ ነገሥት ዘኢትዮጵያ መሲሃ እግዚአብሔር ተብሎ በ483 ዓም ነገሠ። ሠላሳ አምስት ዘመን ከገዛ በኋላ ሃይማኖቱ ኦሪታዊ የሆነ ዱኖባስ ፊንሐስ በናግራን [አሁን የመን ተብሎ በሚታወቀው] የክርስቲያኖች ቁጥር መብዛቱን አይቶ በግዛቱ ውስጥ የነበሩትን ከአራት ሺ በላይ ክርስቲያኖችን  የገደለውን ንጉሥ በማስወገዱ ይታወቃል።

 

Orthodox Church in America 

ፊንሐስ** ትውልዱ ኑባ፣ እድገቱ ኢትዮጵያ ነበረ። ፊንሐስ ከመርዌ ወደ አክሱም ሂዶ የቤተመንግሥት ሥርዓት እና የኦሪትን መጻሕፍትንና ቅዱስ ወንጌልን አጥንቷል። በርሱ ዘመን በአክሱም የአይሁድ እምነት ተከታዮችን እያስገደዱ ወደክርስትና እምነት እንዲገቡ ስቃይ ሲቀበሉና ሲገረፉ እያየ አደገ። በአይሁዶች ላይ ጥላቻና ግድያ እንዲፈጸምባቸው ግፊት የሚያደርጉ ከግብፅ እስክንድርያ የመጡት ጳጳሳት እንደሆኑ አወቀ። ፊንሐስም ወደዋግ ሂዶ የክርስትናን እምነት ትቶ በሙሴ ህግ የአይሁድን ሃይማኖት ተቀበለ። ፊንሐስ በሃድራሞት ሳለ ብዙ አይሁዶች ከተለያዩ አገሮች እየመጡ ከወገኖቻቸው ጋር ተቀላቀሉና ፊንሐስን ዳግማዊ ዳዊት ንጉሠ ጽዮን ብለው አነገሱት። የናግራንን ንጉሥ ለአክሱም ንጉሥ እንዳይገብር ነገር ግን ለእርሱ እንዲገብር ከላከበት በኋላ የናግራንን ከተማ በእሳት አቃጠለው። ክርስቶስን አንክድም ያሉትን መነኮሳት ፣ ካህናት፣ ሽማግሌዎችና ባልቴቶችን እስከልጆቻቸው ጉድጓድ አስቆፍሮ በውስጡ እሳት አስነድዶ ወደእሳት እየጣለ አቃጠላቸ። ንጉሡ አሬስ ክርስቶስን አልክድም በማለቱ በንዴት ያልካዱትን ሁሉ በእሳት አቃጠላቸው። አሬስንም እጅና እግሩን እየቆረጠ በእሳት አቃጠለው። በናግራን ያለቁት ክርስቲያኖች ቁጥራቸው ሃያ ሰባት ሺ ያህል ነበረ። በዚያን ዘመን የምስራቅ ሮማውያን ግዛት (ቁስጥንጥንያ) የሚተዳደረው በዩስጢኖስ አውግስቶስ ስር ነበር። ዩስጢኖስ ይህን ነገር ሰምቶ አዘነ። የእስክንድርያው ሊቀጳጳሳት አባ ጢሞቴዎስ አስትሪዮስ ለአክሱም ንጉሠ ነገሥት ለ ዐፄ ካሌብ ደብዳቤ ጽፎ እንዲበቀል ላከበት ። (1) 

ዐፄ ካሌብም ወዲያውኑ በአክሲማ፣ በፋርስ፣ በቆልዝም፣ በአዱሊስ፣ ታጁራ ፣ በበርበራ ያለውን ጼዋ ጦር*3 በመርከብ ወደአረብ አገር እንዲሻገር ትእዛዝ አስተላለፈ። ንጉሡ ልብሰ መንግሥቱን አውልቆ በርኖስ በመልበስ ወደአምላኩ ፀለየ እንዲህ ሲል፤ “ … ከዚህ ወጥቸ የክርስቲያኖችን ጠላት አይሁዳዊውን በስምህ አጠፋዋለሁ። በክርስቶስ ኃይል ደምስሼ ድል አደርገዋለሁ። … አቤቱ ምድርህን አንተን ለማያውቁህ አሳልፈህ አትስጥ።” ሰባ ሺ ጦር ይዞ በአንድ መቶ ሰባ አራት መርከብ ወደየመን ዘመተ። ፊንሐስም በእጃቸው ወደቀና በጼዋ ሠራዊት ድል ሆነ።  የጦርነቱ ገጽ እንዲህ ነበር።

በ525 ዓም የኢትዮጵያው ንጉሥ ዐፄካሌብ ከመርከብ ሲወርድ ፊንሐስ ጠብቆ  ጦር አሰልፎ ንጉሡን ወጋው። በመካከላቸውም የሚደረገው ጦርነት በጣም የበረታ ሆነ። ያን ጊዜ ዐፄ ካሌብና የጦር ሠራዊቱ በጦር መካከልና በጠላቶቻቸው ፊት እጅግ በረቱ። የፊንሐስንም ሠራዊት አቸንፈው በታተኗቸው። ይልቁንም ዐፄ ካሌብ እራሱ ፊንሐስን ገጠመውና በፈረሱ ላይ እንደተቀመጠ በጨበጣ በጦር ወግቶ ገደለውና ወደባህር ገልብጦ ጣለው። ፊንሐስም በባህሩ ሰጥሞ ሞተ፤ ሚስቱም በዚህ ጊዜ ተማረከች። (2) 

ከዚያም በኋላ ዐፄ ካሌብ ዛፋር ወደምትባል ወደ ሳባ ከተማ በታላቅ ግርማ ገስግሶ ሄደ። የከተማዋንም ጠባቂዎች አቸንፎ ከተማዋን ያዘ። የተረፉት ክርስቲያኖች ከሸሹበትና ከተሸሸጉበት ወደ ቀደመው ቦታቸው ተመለሱ። ንጉሡ የድል አድራጊነትን አክሊል እንደተቀዳጀ ለእስከንድርያው ሊቀ ጳጳስ መልክት ላከ። ሊቀ ጳጳሱም ወደቁስጥንጥያው ንጉሥ ይህንኑ የደስታ መልክት አስተላለፈና በሁሉም ዘንድ ታላቅ ደስታ ተደረገ። ንጉሡ በናግራን የተፈጁትን ክርስቲያኖች ደም በመበቀሉ በእስክንድርያ፣ በቁስጥንጥንያ፣ በአንጾኪያና በሮም ያሉ ክርስቲያኖች ሁሉ ሃዘናቸው ወደደስታ እንዲለወጥ አድርጓል። (2)፤ ገጽ 146። 

በስድስተኛው ምእተ ዓመት አጋማሽ ላይ በአክሱም ነግሦ የነበረው ንጉሥ ካሌብ (እለ አጽብሃ) የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋህዶ ቤተክርስቲያን ፃድቅም ነበር። በስንክሳር ላይ የተመዘገበው የመታሰቢያው እለት ግንቦት 20 ላይ ነው።

ከ16ኛው ምዕተ ዓመት ጀምሮ በካቶሊክ ቤተክርስቲያን ቅዱስ ኤልስባስ* በሚል መጠሪያ በኢየሱሳውያን ግፊት በኦክቶበር  27 ቀን ሲታሰብ ቆይቷል። (3) 

በ517 ዓም የተደረገውን የጦር ዘመቻ ዐፄ ካሌብ የመራው በሮማውያን መርከቦች ታግዞ ነበር ይህ ጽሑፍ በየመን ምድር የዱ ንዋስን ሰራዊት አጥቅቶ አገሩንም ክርስቲያን ማድረጉን ፤ በዚህም ምክንያት ይህ ዘመን የአክሱምን ከፍተኛ ኃይል ያስመዘገበበት ጊዜ ነበር ይለዋል። ዐፄ ካሌብ እስከሶስት ዓመት በሚደርስ ጊዜ በየመን በተቀመጠበት ወቅት በሂምያር ከተሞች ሁሉ ቤተክርስቲያኖችን አሳንጿል። ወደሀገሩ ከተመለሰ በኋላም የንግሥናውን ሥልጣን ትቶ የብህትውና ኑሮን በመምረጥ እንደ አስተማሪው አንደ አባ ጰንጤሌዎን ባንድ ከአክሱም በስተምስራቅ በሚገኝ አምባ ገብቶ ዘግቷል። የንግሥናው ዘውድም በኢየሩሳሌም ኢየሱስ ክርስቶስ በተቀበረበት  ለድል ላበቃው አምላክ ምስጋና ለማቅረብ ሲል በዚያ እንዲቀመጥ አድርጓል።(4) 

በሌላ ጽሑፍ ሰፍሮ የተገኘ መረጃ ላይ ኤልስባን የተሰኘው ስያሜ ለዐፄ ካሌብ የተሰጠው ከመነነ በኋላ መሆኑን ፣ ከዚህም በተጨማሪ ከልጅነቱ ጀምሮ በካቶሊክ እምነት ያደገ እንደሆነ ይገልጻል። ህዝቡን በእውቀትና በጥበብ በመምራት ታዋቂ የነበረ ንጉሥ ነበር ። በአረቢያ ሃገር ነግሦ የነበረው ዱናን ከካቶሊክ እምነቱ አፈንግጦ ይሁዲነትን በመቀበሉ፤ ከዚያም አልፎ ጳጳሳትንና ካህናትን መግደልና የቤተክርስቲያን ሕንጻዎችን በማውደም  ወደቤተ ምኩራብ ይቀይር ነበር። አራት ሺህ ያህል ካቶሊኮች በጭካኔ ተገደሉ። በዚህ ጊዜ የሮማው ንጉሥ ጁስቲንያን አንደኛ ወደንጉሥ ካሌብ ጨካኙን ዱናን እንዲያስወግደው ላከበት። ንጉሥ ካሌብም ሠራዊቱን አስከትቶ፣ ቀይ ባህርን በማቋረጥ የካቶሊክን ክብር ለመመለስ ተዘጋጀ። ንጉሡም አረቢያ በመግባት ፊንሐስን አቸንፎ ገድሎታል። ከዚያም በኋላ ቅዱስ ገርገንቲየስን በመንበሩ ላይ መልሶ አስቀምጦታል። የፈረሱ ቤተክርስቲያናትን አስጠገነ፣ አዳዲሶችንም አሰራ። አብርሐሞስ የተባለው የካቶሊክ እምነት ተከታይ ንግሥናውን እስኪረከብ በዚያ ተቀመጠ።  

ለቅዱስ ካሌብ (ንጉሠ ነገሥት ካሌብ ) የተሰራለት የህይወቱ መታሰቢያ ስዕል እንደሚያመለክተው[ዝቅ ብሎ የሚገኘውን ሰዕል ይመልከቱ] ባጠገቡ መሬት ላይ ወድቆ የሚታየው ዘውድ የዓለምን ኑሮና ክብር እንደተወ አመልካች ነው። በያዘው ሰንደቅ ላይ ያለው አንበሳ የይሁዳ አንበሳ የንግሥና ምልክቱ ነው። የያዘው ጦር የሚያመለክተው በእግሩ ሥር ያለውን ከሃዲ ንጉሥ ድል መምታቱን አመልካች ነው [የክርስትና ድል አድራጊነት]። በግራ እጁ የያዘው ህንፃ ደግሞ ቤተ እምነቶችን እንዳሳደሰና እንዳሳነፀ አመልካች ነው። የክርስትና እምነት  አለኝታና ታዳጊ መሆኑንም ገላጭ ነው። ከስዕሉ ስር የሚታየው ጽሑፍ የሐበሻ ዝርያ መሆኑን እና በባህራትና በውቅያኖሶች ላይ ከአደጋ የሚጠብቅ ቅዱስ መሆኑን አመልካች ነው። በሰንደቅ አርማው ላይ የሚታየው አንበሳ የይሁዳ አንበሳን አመልካች ነው።(5) 

አቶ ተክለፃዲቅ መኩሪያ እንደዘገቡት ከሆነ ዐፄ ካሌብ በምናኔ የኖረበት ዘመን 12 ሲሆን እድሜውም 70 ነበር።(6)  

ቅዱስ ኤሌስባን (ዐፄ ካሌብ) በስደት ላይ ባሉ አፍሪካውያን በኩል ታዋቂ ቅዱስ ነው። በተለይም የስፓኝ እና የፖርቱጋል ዝርያዎች መሃከል በጣም የተከበረ ነው። በስሙም አንዳንድ የጥቁር ካቶሊኮች ማኅበር ተቋቁመዋል። በተለይም በብራዚል በርሱ ስም ብዙ ቤተክርስቲያኖች ታንፀዋል። 

ዐፄ ቅዱስ ካሌብ ንጉሥ እና ካህን እንደነበረ የሚያመለክት በክቡር  ዶክተር*** ከበደ ሚካኤል በተደረሰ አንድ የድራማ መድብል የሚከተለውን ግጥም አቅርበዋል፤ 

ጸሎቴን አትናቅ ልመናዬን ስማ፤ 

መሆኔን ታውቃለህ ባሪያኽም ደካማ። 

አገሬ ኢትዮጵያ ጥፋት እንዳይነካት 

አንተ በጥበብህ በኅይልህ ጠብቃት  

ይህ የኔ ልመና ደካማው ጸሎቴ፣ 

ለኢትዮጵያ ነው ላገሬ ለናቴ። 

እሷም ሌትና ቀን ዘለዓለም ተግታ 

ትለምንኻለች እጆቿን ዘርግታ። 

ባየር በውቅያኖስ በመሬት በሰማይ 

በሰፊው መንግሥትኽ ጥበብኽ የሚታይ 

የሰራዊት ጌታ ወገባሬ ሠናይ 

የምታደላድል ሁሉን እንደግብሩ 

እንከን የለበትም ሥራኽ ሁሉ ጥሩ። 

ያለም ነገር ትቼ የሰማይን ልሻ 

ብፅዐት አድርጊአለሁ እስከ መጨረሻ። 

ይህ ልብሰ መንግሥቴ ላንተ እጅ መንሻ 

ገጸ በረከቴ እንዲሆን ፈቅጀ 

ይኸው አቅርቢያለሁ እኔው በገዛ እጄ። 

ያቀረብኩልህን በሙሉ ትሕትና 

ፈቅደህ ተቀበለኝ ደግ አምላክ ነህና። 

ከሰው ተለይቸ ከዚህ ዓለም ኑሮ 

ጽድቅን ብቻ ልሻ ከዛሬ ጀምሮ። 

መንግሥቴን በገዳም በጸሎት ለውጬ 

አንተን ደጅ ልጠና መጣሁኝ ቆርጬ። (7) 

በ18ኛው ምዕት ዓመት ባልታወቀ ፖርቱጋላዊ የተሳለ ስዕል፤ ከግርጌ በኩል የሚታየው ጽሑፍ ዐፄ ካሌብ ኢትዮጵያ መሆኑን ይገልጻል። 

(wikipedia)

የመጣጥፎች፣ መጻሕፍትና ድረ- ገጾች መዘርዝር፤   

1- አማን በላይ፤ መጽሐፈ አብርሂት ፤ 2000 ዓም።  

2- ተአምረ ኢየሱስ ፤ አዲስ አበባ፤ 1994 ዓም። [ገጽ 146]     

3- መሪራስ አማን በላይ፤ የጥንቷ ኢትዮጵያ ትንሣኤ ታሪክ ፤    

4- Encyclopedia Aethiopica.  

5- Catholic Online, The Root, Butler’s Lives of Saints 

6- ተክለፃድቅ መኩሪያ፤የኢትዮጵያ ታሪክ፤ ኑብያ፣ አክሱም፣ ዛጉየ እስከ ዐፄ ይኩኖ አምላክ ዘመነ መንግሥት፤ 1ኛ መጽሐፍ፤ 1951 ዓም። 

7- ዶ/ር ከበደ ሚካኤል፤ ካሌብ ።[ገጽ 68-9] 

8- “An Ethiopic Inscription Found at Mareb,” Journal of Semitic Studies, v.9(1964), [p.56-57]. 

9- “On the Greek Martyrium of the Negranites,” G.L. Huxley, M.R.I.A; Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section C. Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics and Literature; v.80C, #3, (1980). [p. 45-55]. 

10- Sergew Hable Sellassie, Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1270, (1972), [p. 123-158].

*ኤልስባስ ወይም ኤለስባን የሚለው ስያሜ እለ አጽብሐ ከሚለው የተወሰደ መሆኑ ነው። 

**ተአምረ ኢየሱስ ፊንሐስን ማዝሩቅ ይለዋል። 

*** የተሰጣቸው የክብር ዶክትሬት ነው።

*3- ጼዋ ሠራዊት/ጦር -በንጉሠ ነገሥቱ የሚታዘዝ ግብር የሚያስገብርና  የጦር ሠራዊት ነው።

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